ToxSTAR combines in vitro, in vivo, and in silico data to predict drug-induced liver injury (DILI).

in vitro assays: 3D HepaRG viability, 3D ARE/Nrf2 reporter system in HepG2

in vivo assays: daphnia magna acute immobilization test, zebrafish embryo viability

in silico models: Statistical models, rule-based model (expert system), AlogP

ToxSTAR combines alternative testing methods to promote 3Rs principles, which aim to replace, reduce, or refine animal testing.

Replace: replacing an animal testing if alternative methods are available.

Reduce: reducing the number of animals in testing.

Refine: refining methods or experimental protocols to minimize the stress caused to animals during testing.